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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

A cheery New Year hold lots of happiness for you!给你特别的祝福,愿新年带给你无边的幸福、如意。

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联系方式:Staci Donegan and Peter Westley, Celia Dunn Sotheby’s International Realty, (912) 247-2052 / (912) 660-5169; celiadunnsir.com
“The course was delivered by top-notch practitioners,” says one HEC Paris graduate. “The programme is perfectly designed for young professionals having limited finance experience and allows them to be immediately operational upon graduation.”
其中一本被标上"M3"的坟墓里包含有神兽的雕刻,其中有四只代表一年四季以及天堂的各个部分:西边的白虎,南边的朱红鸟,北边的黑龟,东边的青龙。

此外,华为在2016年最后一季度第一次实现了2位数的全球市场占有率。
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4.Autonomous Cars

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

新型建材及建筑节能改造市场“钱”景广

castle
vt. 避免,逃避
The highest ranked of these is Fudan University School of Management in Shanghai at 40, down eight places on its previous rank in 2014.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Although Facebook is blocked in China, Tencent has linked WeChat to Facebook, which means that users outside of China can use the service in conjunction with the world's most popular social network. That is a boon for WeChat in Southeast Asian countries like Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines, which have large numbers of Facebook users. Tencent has offered WeChat in languages for all three markets.
13. 还有更好的。10月,《洛杉矶时报》报道,平等工作机会委员会正在调查这个行业内的性别歧视现象,美国民权同盟要求各州与联邦机构继自己之后各自进行调查。
In early 2005, Stone and her co-founders Elisa Camahort Page and Jory Des Jardins noticed that there were countless women blogging, but mainstream media rarely linked to their posts. The trio decided to host a grassroots conference that year and attracted sponsors like Google and Yahoo. It quickly sold out and soon after, they launched BlogHer.com. The publishing platform turned blogging into a lucrative business for many women -- it paid $25 million to 5,000 of its bloggers between 2009 and 2012 -- and now reaches an audience of 92 million.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 最佳电影提名应该可以肯定。参演《至暗时刻》的加里?奥德曼是最佳男主角的最热人选,如果说有谁能击败他的话,那可能就是蒂莫西?柴勒梅德了。
  • 从全国两会热点话题看新时代新变化
  • 不要马上接受一个工作录用。你需要好好考虑一下。你要是一签文件了,就没有商量的余地了。
  • 全装修对国内洁具市场五大深远影响
  • 50岁的危旧房换新颜 上城区代表联络站听民声解民忧
  • Media reports from both countries, which have been involved in rising tensions over territories in the South China Sea, lay the blame on the their respective governments for illegal foods entering their markets.
    报名窗口将于周六关闭,报名成功者须参加11月29号的2016年国家公务员考试,考试通过后才可以参加明年3月的面试。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 苏宁小店下月可淘二手房 服务费一口价9999元, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

并非所有橱柜企业都能走“设计品牌”之路

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

加快农业转移人口市民化进程(大家手笔)

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 《大汉情缘之云中歌》
    ['b?d?it]
  • 像中国人口这么多的国家,关于寂寞的病毒式模仿会这么流行实在是件很讽刺的事情。这句看上去很无厘头的话被用在了所有可能搭配的排列中,用在了所有场合,比如,“哥看的不是书,是寂寞。”
    Blondie, 'Pollinator'
    n. 版权,著作权
    “能够有这些天赋异禀的艺术家为电影的音乐进行神助攻,我们非常能高兴。”这场秀的制作人Michael De Luca 和Jennifer Todd周五发表申明时如是说。“能邀请到他们登上第90届奥斯卡也是一种荣幸。”
    在进行融资时,约40%的创业者并未寻求任何外部帮助。他们中的半数完全依靠自己的积蓄及(或者)家人和朋友的资助,相比之下,只有40%的创业者向学校或校友网络寻求帮助。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 建材原材料价格全线上涨 家居行业应该如何应对?
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 2015年房地产行业分化加剧 险资频登台“搅局”

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

克普克写道,分析师们常常“认为新兴市场危机易发性的根源在于制度薄弱,这使得这些国家易受经济、金融不稳定的影响。”
制定计划
英语中,男女用语的7个大不同
Beck “Say Goodbye” (Capitol)
However, you know when your cycles are over when the washer and dryer stop making noise. And you know when the weather is ugly by simply looking outside, or checking your weather app. Therefore, the product is basically just another way hackers can get into your home.
5.布莱恩·克兰斯顿曾是杀人嫌疑犯
“The key thing about Friends is that it’s about people working out how they are going to live their lives — what kind of relationships are they going to have, what kind of job, and the difficulties of settling down,” says Mills to the Daily Mail. “You’re engaged in all those questions about escaping from your family, becoming an adult and working out what you want to be.”And that’s one of the key issues in the youth culture of the 1990s.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 统计数据显示,在2009年之前,全球研发支出以每年约7%的速度增长,但在2014年放缓了4%。
  • 逆势增长32%!2015年中山雷士销售额实现8.6亿
  • 库迪斯和沃斯在孜孜不倦分析荷兰金融记录的过程中得出了结论,悲观者和乐观者之间真正的区别在于他们是否亲身经历过这样的痛苦过程。库迪斯认为,可以类比的是那些经历过大萧条的人们的行为:这些人在大萧条梦魇过去后的几十年里,一直回避金融风险。
    A study cited in an article from Harvard University suggests your diet could have a significant impact on your memory as you age. Scientists at Brigham and Women's Hospital published a study within the "Annals of Neurology" that suggested women who ate high levels of saturated fat in foods like red meat and butter didn't perform as well on memory tests than women who regularly consumed less saturated fat. Researchers haven't yet discovered the connection between saturated fat and memory, but they hypothesize it could have something to do with a person's genes. Scientists and doctors have long recommended that patients work to control their cholesterol levels as they age to protect the memory during the aging process.
  • 上半年北京购房需求得到部分释放
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 当然我们不可能列举出所有女性,这个榜单的评选范围仅限于那些名气较大的女星。下面就让我们来见识一下这些热辣美女吧。
    此外,由于该机构的一些业务涉及为政府提供教育方面的建议,此类员工的专长是很宝贵的。
  • Goldie Blox是一家玩具公司,使命是重新定义玩具商店中的“粉红走道”。在科学、技术、工程和数学(STEM)教育和职业领域,男性数量要大大多于女性,大部分女孩往往在八岁前就对这些领域失去了兴趣。Goldie Blox所设计的玩具则通过吸引女孩发展强大的口头及故事讲述能力的方式——同时仍提供机会来发展日后可转化成对工程学兴趣的技能——来鼓励和启发未来的工程师们。说到机会,一家玩具初创企业如何能在和一开始就统治着玩具行业的大公司的抗衡中脱颖而出呢?Goldie Blox走出了明智的一步:最近,该公司发布了一段视频,采用了Beastie Boys的歌曲《女孩们》(Girls)做背景音乐,该视频得到了病毒式传播。尽管这段视频最终被撤下,但Goldie Blox在提高公众对让更多女性和女孩对STEM产生兴趣——以及对Goldie Blox玩具——的认知上,做了一份相当不错的工作。
    Instead it ticked upward slightly to 8.3 per cent.
  • To ease women's concerns following the implementation of the two-child policy, the country should put in place more explicit regulations banning discrimination against women. These could include requiring companies to have a certain percentage of female employees, as well as tax cuts or other preferential measures to encourage employers to effectively implement the extended maternity leave regulation for female workers.
    当晚的最大赢家可能还要属主持人蒂娜?费和埃米?珀勒,这是两人第二次搭档主持金球奖颁奖典礼,且她们今年表现丝毫不逊去年,创下了1,970万观众的六年来最高收视率。金球奖颁奖典礼由好莱坞外国记者协会(Hollywood Foreign Press Association)举办,举办地点位于加利福尼亚州贝弗利山庄的贝弗利山希尔顿酒店(Beverly Hills Hilton)。
  • 在这部1998年的古装剑侠动作电影中,安东尼奥·班德拉斯扮演了一个无聊的贵族,他有时会扮成蒙面歹徒,从腐败领导人手中拯救加州的墨西哥平民。虽然佐罗听起来可能像个普通的老派超级英雄,但是《佐罗的面具》依据的故事大部分来源于现实世界中,一个叫乔伊·穆里埃塔的亡命之徒。
    这项任命是由澳大利亚贸易、旅游与投资部长史蒂文·乔博于2月21日宣布的。中国国家旅游局局长李金早出席了该活动。
    野村证券驻首尔策略师Michael Na表示:“这可能只是个开始。要惩罚韩国企业,他们有如此多的选项。”
  • 通过比较不同地区指定类别的生活成本,《经济学人智库》指出,亚洲城市在食品上的购买成本最高,其中韩国首尔的食品价格最高。欧洲城市则是在休闲娱乐用品上的成本最高。
    肯达尔·詹娜首次击败了15年里世界上收入最高的模特吉赛尔·邦辰。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 市场经营环境持续恶化 地板企业“救生圈”何在? shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

国内LED企业加速拓展新兴市场

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

住房变迁获得感满满

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

国内LED企业欲崛起 还需储备专利“弹药”

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

新一线城市作梯消解房地产泡沫 让经济再飞20年

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Wang Rongzhen在采访中表示,“我们就是要卖车,如果厂家不提供车型,我们就卖不下去了,也只能退网。”他估计经销商每年亏损300-1000万元。目前,现代汽车在中国有近40家进口经销商,其中30家经销商要求退网赔偿。
  • 与IBM合作,将iPad和iPhone销售给大企业客户,只是苹果在库克领导下打破自身藩篱的一个例子,而这是乔布斯一直不愿做的。
  • 宜家:改变购买家具方式的全球零售业巨头

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • France, one of the most visited countries in the world, ranks No. 9 overall. It is No. 2 in Cultural Influence and No. 6 in Power.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 不会。结束罗伯特穆加贝(Robert Mugabe)长达37年的执政(军方在这件事上也帮了点忙)后,埃默森姆南加古瓦(Emmerson Mnangagwa)承诺在2018年举行自由选举。这引出了一个问题:他可能会输掉大选。他至少要装作选举是公平的,因为他需要政治献金来扭转经济。这将意味着要推行选举改革——可能会让其不受欢迎的非洲民族联盟-爱国阵线(Zanu-PF)输掉选举。即使姆南加古瓦准备好在选举中赌一把,还不清楚军方愿不愿意。已经把自己的人推上台的津巴布韦将军们,不太可能会容许公众再把他踢下去。
    “With the vast number of cutting-edge, eco-friendly faux furs available on the market today, I'm sure you'll agree that there's no longer any excuse for killing animals for their fur.”
    Landline
  • While there is a still a way to go to ensure the LGBT community has the same rights as sexual couples, the world has moved on significantly in recent years. In fact, gay marriage is now legal for 60% of Americans. What about the other 40%, you ask? The List Love really believes the rest of the United States, and many other countries across the world – we’re talking to you, Russia! -will catch up soon.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • After being named Esquire's "Sexiest Women Alive" in October and Details' "Most F*ckable Celebrity" last month, the gorgeous 29-year-old has now snagged another honor: FHM's "Sexiest Woman In The World 2013," beating 99 other ladies and countless more who didn't even make the list.
  • 中国14436.41万人实缴公积金 44%提取的人为还房贷
  • 对胎儿进行手术有可能改变他们的人生。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 青岛家居市场现蝴蝶效应 旺季遇冷
  • Household substance abuse
  • 富士康员工公开信后续:万科称将维持城中村租金稳定
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

南康首批家具生产集聚区用地挂牌出让

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 高仿进口家具野蛮生长 “防伪码”能否拦住伪进口货
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 家居市场花样频出 消费者做好功课
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

如下是我们对中国2014年的10个预测

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Warriors winning title was inevitable
10.You are Stressed All the Time
007系列电影主题曲第四名:汤姆·琼斯--《霹雳弹》
现任美国主席奥巴马的内阁共有7名女性,17名男性,克林顿曾是其中一员。
国际消费类电子产品展
“我头发都白了,一半为了房价,一半为了(你们)记者。”
老爷车:由于今年在一个海外小岛上发现了一大批尘封50年之久的老爷车,导致现在二战后的老爷车的供给充足,价格也显著下降。收藏家们尤其喜欢Packards、Studebakers、Hudsons、Nashes、Kaisers和Henry J’s等型号的老爷车。更令人吃惊的是这批老爷车的车况都十分良好,能够满足日常使用。(财富中文网)
Nirvana in Fire
调查结果显示,今年大约有9.8%的应届毕业生选择“慢就业”。所谓的“慢就业”是指一些毕业生不着急就业,而是选择旅游、在家陪父母以及继续等待机会自主创业等方式,慢慢考虑人生道路的现象。
At the end of a politically charged ceremony in which Donald Trump was the subject of frequent jokes by host Jimmy Kimmel, Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway announced that La La Land had won. But as the producers and cast of Damien Chazelle’s modern musical were on stage giving emotional thank you speeches, they were told that Moonlight was the real winner.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

看完110套学区房是种怎样的体验?

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 鹈鹕一直在费力的吸引并留下自由球员,他们必须在这个夏天留下朱-霍勒迪,考辛斯的家乡在附近的阿拉巴马,而且他和安东尼-戴维斯是密友,同时,多个令人沮丧和伤病困扰的赛季让鹈鹕一直在失败的循环中摇摆。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 8月24日
  • 7个月260次 中国楼市进入“调控年”
  • 然而,时间较长似乎并不代表学业较轻松。要保持学习劲头,合理的时间管理至关重要。英国华威商学院的一名毕业生谈到:“几个必修项目会帮助你跟上进度并避免在最后阶段非常紧张。”总的来说,2012级毕业生花了两年半多一点的时间完成学业。
  • 珠三角热点城市成交回落 非限购城市阶段性活跃
  • “…brought his dog.”

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 深圳家具标准明年5月实施 还有六个月可用溶剂型涂料
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 研究显示,通过短信获取重置码、备选邮箱来恢复登陆的有效性分别为81%、75%。
  • 葡萄牙完全使用可再生能源供电四天

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

上海经济半年报:楼市运行总体平稳,利用外资由双降转为双升

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