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玻璃行业严重受挫:中国玻璃集团去年盈转亏蚀4.3亿

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 绿色建材成行业新宠 需加快标准认证体系建设 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

信息化+家具业可使效率提高两倍 没有理由不用

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

The ministry said that it had no tolerance for cheating and had asked public security departments to conduct an investigation.
London Business School is top of the 2014 FT ranking of European business schools, regaining the position it last held in 2005. LBS pushed the 2013 joint winners HEC Paris and Spain’s IE Business School into second and third places respectively.
Here is my best guess - and that's all it is - for how the U.S. economy and markets will look in 2010:
但是,这些进展也指向美国和欧盟在利用此类案件上的巨大差异,欧盟目前正在讨论是否要赋予中国世界贸易组织(WTO)框架下的“市场经济”地位——这一让步会使对中国提起反倾销案变难。
[i'nili]
赖床有了新理由
人的身体是十分脆弱的,有些娇弱的器官一旦破坏就永远难以复原。幸运的是,世界各地的研究人员都在研究能替代我们身体部位的生化机械器官。

物理学界这一开拓性的发现已经点燃科学研究的星星之火,而他们的这项研究发展为前沿科技,也不过是时间早晚的事罢了,就像100年前我们无法想象今天的激光和电脑芯片那样,美国物理学会候选会长劳拉?H?格林在接受《纽约时报》采访时表示。
Meanwhile producer prices fell 4.9 per cent year-on-year in February, as expected, compared to a 5.3 per cent fall in January. The drop was the smallest in eight months.
涨幅放慢也与房地产投资变化趋势吻合。上月,一二线城市的限购措施对房地产投资造成了(些许)冲击,全国范围内的房产成交量和成交金额的增速也有所减缓。
5. What are my core values? What is important to you as an individual? Is it family, health, spirituality, work, etc.? Make sure that you are living in alignment with what matters most to you.
平均工作经验:12年

Footnotes

  • 机构看市:下半年量跌价涨 中长期拐点已至
  • 双语介绍《喜羊羊与灰太狼》

adj. 透视的
国际美容整形外科学会发布的数据显示,若考虑人口因素,韩国现在是全世界整形美容业最大的市场。
在周某投毒之后,他的一名唐姓同学发现了饮水机的水呈乳白色,还有一股刺鼻的气味。
Company: Everyone Counts
foundation
就业市场面临着挑战。约有500万美国人失业已有六个月之久,技能退化令他们未来更难找到工作的风险也加大。此外,收入增长放缓引发的担忧可能会限制企业招聘。据咨询公司CEB今年10月进行的一项调查显示,约有36%的美国高管预计其公司的职员人数会减少;相比之下,今年夏天这一比例为29%。[qh]

督查组暗访:入户调查5户群众 4户不知是否发了社保卡

References

View Abstract